PHP Carbon 教程

PHP Carbon 教程展示了如何在带有 Carbon 包的 PHP 中使用日期和时间,我们使用nesbot/carbon包。

PHP Carbon

Carbon 是一个 PHP 日期时间库,它是 PHP DateTime类的扩展。

PHP Carbon 设置

该软件包随 composer 一起安装。

$ composer req nesbot/carbon

我们安装nesbot/carbon软件包。

今天的日期

以下示例显示如何获取今天的日期。

today.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();
echo "$now\n";

$today = Carbon::today();
echo "$today\n";

Carbon::now()返回当前日期和时间,Carbon:today()返回当前日期。

$ php today.php
2019-05-07 10:20:54
2019-05-07 00:00:00

Carbon::yesterday()为昨天创建一个 Carbon 实例,为明天创建Carbon::tomorrow()

yes_tom.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Carbon\Carbon;

$yes = Carbon::yesterday();
echo "Yesterday: $yes\n";

$tom = Carbon::tomorrow();
echo "Tomorrow: $tom\n";

该示例显示了昨天和明天的日期。

Carbon 实例创建

Carbon 实例可以使用几种创建方法来创建。

create.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$d1 = Carbon::create(2018, 8, 25, 22, 48, 00);
echo $d1 . "\n";

$d2  = Carbon::create(2018, 8, 25, 22, 48, 00, 'Europe/Moscow');
echo $d2 . "\n";

$d3 = Carbon::createFromDate(2018, 8, 14, 'America/Chicago');
echo $d3 . "\n";

$d4 = Carbon::createFromTimestamp(1);
echo $d4 . "\n";

该示例使用四种不同的方法创建 Carbon 实例。

$d1 = Carbon::create(2018, 8, 25, 22, 48, 00);

create()方法根据日期和时间部分生成一个 Carbon 实例。

$d2  = Carbon::create(2018, 8, 25, 22, 48, 00, 'Europe/Moscow');

在第二个示例中,我们还提供了一个时区。

$d3 = Carbon::createFromDate(2018, 8, 14, 'America/Chicago');

使用createFromDate(),我们创建一个带有日期部分的 Carbon 实例。

$d4 = Carbon::createFromTimestamp(1);

createFromTimestamp()从 Unix 时间创建一个 Carbon 实例。

$ php create.php
2018-08-25 22:48:00
2018-08-25 22:48:00
2018-08-14 03:33:16
1970-01-01 01:00:01

Carbon 相对修饰符

Carbon 实例可以通过相对修饰符来创建,例如下一个星期五或一年之前。

relative_modifiers.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

echo new Carbon('tomorrow') . "\n";
echo new Carbon('yesterday') . "\n";
echo new Carbon('next wednesday') . "\n";
echo new Carbon('last friday') . "\n";
echo new Carbon('this saturday') . "\n";
echo new Carbon('1 year ago') . "\n";

该示例使用几个修饰符创建 Carbon 实例。

$ php relative_modifiers.php
2019-05-08 00:00:00
2019-05-06 00:00:00
2019-05-08 00:00:00
2019-05-03 00:00:00
2019-05-11 00:00:00
2018-05-07 11:53:03

Carbon next()previous()

next()previous()方法给出一周中给定日期的下一个/上一个出现。

next_previous.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();

echo "$now\n";

$next_monday = $now->next(Carbon::MONDAY);
echo "Next monday: $next_monday\n";

$prev_monday = $now->previous(Carbon::MONDAY);
echo "Previous monday: $prev_monday\n";

该示例显示了下一个和上一个星期一。

$ php next_previous.php
2019-05-07 11:34:32
Next monday: 2019-05-13 00:00:00
Previous monday: 2019-05-06 00:00:00

Carbon 日期时间

Carbon 日期时间包括年,月,日或小时。

parts.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();

echo $now->year  . "\n";
echo $now->month  . "\n";
echo $now->day  . "\n";
echo $now->hour  . "\n";
echo $now->second  . "\n";
echo $now->dayOfWeek  . "\n";
echo $now->dayOfYear  . "\n";
echo $now->weekOfMonth  . "\n";
echo $now->daysInMonth  . "\n";

该示例显示 Carbon 日期时间实例的各个部分。

$ php parts.php
2019
5
7
10
31
2
126
1
31

Carbon 流式 API

Carbon 还提供了方便的流式 API 来处理日期时间。

fluent_api.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$dt = Carbon::create();
$dt->year(2019)->month(5)->day(6)->hour(16)->minute(12)->second(53);
echo $dt . "\n";

$dt2 = Carbon::create();
$dt2->setDate(2019, 5, 6)->setTime(16, 12, 53);
echo $dt2 . "\n";

$dt3 = Carbon::create();
$dt3->setDate(2019, 5, 6)->setTime(16, 12, 53);
echo $dt3 . "\n";

该示例使用流畅的 API 创建了三个 Carbon 实例。

$ php fluent_api.php
2019-05-06 16:12:53
2019-05-06 16:12:53
2019-05-06 16:12:53

Carbon 修改方法

Carbon 修改方法修改实例。 我们可以使用copy()方法来处理副本。

copy_method.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

echo "Tomorrow: " . Carbon::tomorrow() . "\n";

echo "*************************\n";

$dt = new Carbon('tomorrow');
echo $dt->subDay() . "\n";
echo $dt . "\n";

echo "*************************\n";

$dt2 = new Carbon('tomorrow');
echo $dt2->copy()->subDay() . "\n";
echo $dt2 . "\n";

该示例介绍了copy()方法。

$ php copy_method.php
Tomorrow: 2019-05-08 00:00:00
*************************
2019-05-07 00:00:00
2019-05-07 00:00:00
*************************
2019-05-07 00:00:00
2019-05-08 00:00:00

在第二种情况下,原始实例是完整的。

Carbon 加减法

Carbon提供了两种不同的方法来轻松增加和减少时间。

add_sub.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();

echo "$now\n";

$d1 = $now->copy()->addDays(3);
echo "$d1\n";

$d2 = $now->copy()->addHours(12);
echo "$d2\n";

$d3 = $now->copy()->subDays(3);
echo "$d3\n";

$d4 = $now->copy()->subHours(12);
echo "$d4\n";

该示例介绍了addDays()addHours()subDays()subHours()方法。

$ php add_sub.php
2019-05-07 12:27:22
2019-05-10 12:27:22
2019-05-08 00:27:22
2019-05-04 12:27:22
2019-05-07 00:27:22

下面的示例显示其他加法和减法。

add_sub.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();

$d1 = $now->copy()->addCenturies(2);
echo $d1->toDateString() . "\n";

$d2 = $now->copy()->subCenturies(2);
echo $d2->toDateString() . "\n";

$d3 = $now->copy()->addYears(2);
echo $d3->toDateString() . "\n";

$d4 = $now->copy()->subYears(2);
echo $d4->toDateString() . "\n";

$d5 = $now->copy()->addMonths(2);
echo $d5->toDateString() . "\n";

$d6 = $now->copy()->subMonths(2);
echo $d6->toDateString() . "\n";

我们显示addCenturies()subCenturies()addYears()subYears()addMonths()subMonths()

$ php add_sub2.php
2219-05-07
1819-05-07
2021-05-07
2017-05-07
2019-07-07
2019-03-07

Carbon 格式化日期时间

Carbon 提供了几种格式化日期时间的方法。

formatting.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$dt = Carbon::now();

echo $dt . "\n";
echo $dt->toDateTimeString(). "\n";

echo "******************************\n";

echo $dt->toDateString(). "\n";
echo $dt->toFormattedDateString(). "\n";
echo $dt->toTimeString(). "\n";
echo $dt->toDayDateTimeString(). "\n";

echo "******************************\n";

echo $dt->format('Y-m-d h:i:s A'). "\n";

该示例提供了基本的格式化方法,我们还可以使用format()生成自定义格式。

$ php formatting.php
2019-05-07 10:36:09
2019-05-07 10:36:09
******************************
2019-05-07
May 7, 2019
10:36:09
Tue, May 7, 2019 10:36 AM
******************************
2019-05-07 10:36:09 AM

下面的示例显示其他常见的 Carbon 日期时间格式化方法。

common_formats.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$dt = Carbon::createFromFormat('Y-m-d H:i:s.u', '2019-05-06 16:45:00.613484');

echo $dt->toAtomString() . "\n";
echo $dt->toCookieString() . "\n";

echo $dt->toIso8601String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toIso8601ZuluString() . "\n";

echo $dt->toRfc822String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toRfc850String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toRfc1036String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toRfc1123String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toRfc3339String() . "\n";
echo $dt->toRfc7231String() . "\n";

echo $dt->toRssString() . "\n";
echo $dt->toW3cString() . "\n";

该示例介绍了其他十二种方法。

$ php common_formats.php
2019-05-06T16:45:00+02:00
Monday, 06-May-2019 16:45:00 CEST
2019-05-06T16:45:00+02:00
2019-05-06T14:45:00Z
Mon, 06 May 19 16:45:00 +0200
Monday, 06-May-19 16:45:00 CEST
Mon, 06 May 19 16:45:00 +0200
Mon, 06 May 2019 16:45:00 +0200
2019-05-06T16:45:00+02:00
Mon, 06 May 2019 14:45:00 GMT
Mon, 06 May 2019 16:45:00 +0200
2019-05-06T16:45:00+02:00

Carbon 比较日期时间

Carbon 具有比较日期时间的方法,例如eq()gt()

comparing.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$first = Carbon::create(2019, 5, 5, 22, 20, 1);
$second = Carbon::create(2019, 5, 5, 20, 20, 1);

echo $first . "\n";
echo $second . "\n";

var_dump($first->eq($second));
var_dump($first->ne($second));
var_dump($first->gt($second));
var_dump($first->gte($second));
var_dump($first->lt($second));
var_dump($first->lte($second));

该示例比较两个日期时间值。

$ php comparison.php
2019-05-05 22:20:01
2019-05-05 20:20:01
bool(false)
bool(true)
bool(true)
bool(true)
bool(false)
bool(false)

Carbon UTC

协调世界时(UTC)是世界各地用来调节时钟和时间的主要时间标准。

utc.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

$now = Carbon::now();
echo "$now\n";
isUtc($now);

echo "Offset hours: {$now->offsetHours}\n";

echo "******************************\n";

$now->tz('UTC');
echo "$now\n";
isUtc($now);

function isUtc($now): void 
{
    if ($now->utc) 
    {
        echo "Datetime is in UTC\n";
    } else {

        echo "Datetime is not in UTC\n";
    }
}

该示例计算 UTC 时间(以小时为单位的偏移量),并确定日期时间是否为 UTC 时间。

$ php utc.php
2019-05-07 11:14:18
Datetime is not in UTC
Offset hours: 2
******************************
2019-05-07 09:14:18
Datetime is in UTC

Carbon 人性化日期时间差异

应用通常以所谓的人性化格式显示日期时间差异,例如 在一年或三分钟前。

humanized.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

echo Carbon::now()->addYear()->diffForHumans() . "\n";

Carbon::setLocale('de');
echo Carbon::now()->addYear()->diffForHumans() . "\n";

Carbon::setLocale('sk');
echo Carbon::now()->addYear()->diffForHumans() . "\n";

该示例显示了三种语言环境中的日期时间差异。

$ php humanize.php
1 year from now
in 1 Jahr
za rok

Carbon 修饰符

修饰符方法对当前实例执行有用的修改。 他们可以检索周,月或年的开始/结束。

modifiers.php

<?php

require __DIR__ . "/vendor/autoload.php";

use Carbon\Carbon;

echo "Start/End of day\n";

$dt = Carbon::create(2019, 5, 6, 12, 0, 0);

echo $dt->copy()->startOfDay() . "\n";
echo $dt->copy()->endOfDay() . "\n";

echo "\nStart/End of month\n";

echo $dt->copy()->startOfMonth() . "\n";
echo $dt->copy()->endOfMonth() . "\n";

echo "\nStart/End of year\n";

echo $dt->copy()->startOfYear() . "\n";
echo $dt->copy()->endOfYear() . "\n";

echo "\nStart/End of decade\n";
echo $dt->copy()->startOfDecade() . "\n";
echo $dt->copy()->endOfDecade() . "\n";

echo "\nStart/End of century\n";
echo $dt->copy()->startOfCentury() . "\n";
echo $dt->copy()->endOfCentury() . "\n";

该示例提出了几个修饰符。

$ php modifiers.php
Start/End of day
2019-05-06 00:00:00
2019-05-06 23:59:59

Start/End of month
2019-05-01 00:00:00
2019-05-31 23:59:59

Start/End of year
2019-01-01 00:00:00
2019-12-31 23:59:59

Start/End of decade
2010-01-01 00:00:00
2019-12-31 23:59:59

Start/End of century
2001-01-01 00:00:00
2100-12-31 23:59:59

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